Binding multiple epitopes with a single antibody offers several benefits. For example, one specificity may target individual molecules while another could recruit effector cells or deliver a drug to the target. Other options include dual-target bispecifics which might detect a desired cell type with much higher selectivity than a monospecific antibody.
One of Absolute Antibody’s engineering services is the design and manufacture of multispecific antibody formats. Starting with a hybridoma cell line or antibody sequence, we can deliver from milligrams to grams of your custom bispecific, 100% royalty-free. Contact us with any enquiries.
Knob-into-holes (KIH) – and other approaches
The most widely-recognized method for making bispecific antibodies is known as the knob-into-holes (KIH) approach. Two antibody chains are co-expressed recombinantly with mutations to create a “knob” on one and “hole” on the other such that heterodimer is the predominant product. When people refer to bispecific antibodies, they are typically referring to these heterodimeric antibodies, i.e., a traditional IgG molecule but with one arm targeting one antigen and the other targeting a second.
However, by making use of Fab fragments and the single chain Fv (scFv) as building blocks, many other options become available. Some of these are summarized below.